Published Studies

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The following publications from 2019-2021 highlight clinical studies completed at the Duke Neonatal Perinatal Research Unit.

[Note: This page is currently under construction.]

Maternal Factors Impacting Neonates

Puia-Dumitrescu M, Greenberg RG, Younge N, Bidegain M, Cotten CM, McCaffrey M, Murtha A, Gutierrez S, DeJoseph J, Cochran KM, Ollendorff A. Disparities in the use of antenatal corticosteroids among women with hypertension in North Carolina.  J Perinatol. 2020 Mar;40(3):456-462.

Chawla S, Laptook AR, Smith EA, Tan S, Natarajan G, Wyckoff MH, Ambalavanan N, Bell EF, Van Meurs KP, Stevenson DK, Werner EF, Greenberg RG, Das A, Shankaran S; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network. In-hospital mortality and morbidity among extremely preterm infants in relation to maternal body mass index. J Perinatol. 2021 May;41(5):1014-1024. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00847-0. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 33024258; PMCID: PMC8021608.

Birth Trauma

Benninger KL, Inder TE, Goodman AM, Cotten CM, Nordli DR, Shah TA, Slaughter JC, Maitre NL. Perspectives from the Society for Pediatric Research. Neonatal encephalopathy clinical trials: developing the future. Pediatr Res. 2021 Jan;89(1):74-84. doi: 10.1038/s41390-020-0859-9. Epub 2020 Mar 27. PMID: 32221474; PMCID: PMC7529683.

Ambalavanan N, Shankaran S, Laptook AR, Carper BA, Das A, Carlo WA, Cotton CM, Duncan AF, Higgins RD; EUNICE KENNEDY SHRIVER NICHD NEONATAL RESEARCH NETWORK. Early Determination of Prognosis in Neonatal Moderate or Severe Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2021 Jun;147(6):e2020048678. doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-048678. Epub 2021 May 13. PMID: 33986149; PMCID: PMC8168606.


Lemmon ME, Bonifacio SL, Shellhaas RA, Wusthoff CJ, Greenberg RG, Soul JS, Chang T, Chu CJ, Bates S, Massey SL, Abend NS, Cilio MR, Glass HC; Neonatal Seizure Registry. Characterization of Death in Infants With Neonatal Seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2020 Dec;113:21-25. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.08.002. Epub 2020 Aug 5. PMID: 32980743; PMCID: PMC7669564.

Lemmon M, Glass H, Shellhaas RA, Barks MC, Bailey B, Grant K, Grossbauer L, Pawlowski K, Wusthoff CJ, Chang T, Soul J, Chu CJ, Thomas C, Massey SL, Abend NS, Rogers EE, Franck LS; Neonatal Seizure Registry. Parent experience of caring for neonates with seizures. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2020 Nov;105(6):634-639. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-318612. Epub 2020 Jun 5. PMID: 32503792; PMCID: PMC7581607.

Glass HC, Grinspan ZM, Li Y, McNamara NA, Chang T, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon ME, Thomas C, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA; Neonatal Seizure Registry Study Group. Risk for infantile spasms after acute symptomatic neonatal seizures. Epilepsia. 2020 Dec;61(12):2774-2784. doi: 10.1111/epi.16749. Epub 2020 Nov 13. PMID: 33188528; PMCID: PMC7772063.

Dorner RA, Boss RD, Burton VJ, Raja K, Lemmon ME. Parent preferences for neurodevelopmental screening in the neonatal intensive care unit. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020 Apr;62(4):500-505. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14457. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 31909496; PMCID: PMC7056590.

Lemmon ME, Huffstetler H, Barks MC, Kirby C, Katz M, Ubel PA, Docherty SL, Brandon D. Neurologic Outcome After Prematurity: Perspectives of Parents and Clinicians. Pediatrics. 2019 Jul;144(1):e20183819. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-3819. PMID: 31248939; PMCID: PMC6615517.

Glass HC, Soul JS, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Wusthoff CJ, Chang T, Cilio MR, Bonifacio SL, Abend NS, Thomas C, Lemmon M, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA; Neonatal Seizure Registry study group. Response to antiseizure medications in neonates with acute symptomatic seizures. Epilepsia. 2019 Mar;60(3):e20-e24. doi:10.1111/epi.14671. Epub 2019 Feb 20. PMID: 30790268; PMCID: PMC6443409.

Franck LS, Shellhaas RA, Lemmon M, Sturza J, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Thomas C, Rogers EE, McCulloch CE, Grant K, Grossbauer L, Pawlowski K, Glass HC; Neonatal Seizure Registry study group. Associations between Infant and Parent Characteristics and Measures of Family Well-Being in Neonates with Seizures: A Cohort Study. J Pediatr. 2020 Jun;221:64-71.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.024. PMID: 32446494; PMCID: PMC7336525.

Lemmon ME, Huffstetler HE, Donohue P, Katz M, Barks MC, Schindler E, Brandon D, Boss RD, Ubel PA. Neurodevelopmental Risk: A Tool to Enhance Conversations With Families of Infants. J Child Neurol. 2019 Oct;34(11):653-659. doi: 10.1177/0883073819844927. Epub 2019 May 29. PMID: 31137987; PMCID: PMC7282194.

Lemmon ME, Truog RD, Ubel PA. Allocating Resources Across the Life Span During COVID-19-Integrating Neonates and Children Into Crisis Standards of Care Protocols. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Apr 1;175(4):347-348. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.5215. PMID: 33315093.

Dorner RA, Boss RD, Burton VJ, Raja K, Robinson S, Lemmon ME. Isolated and On Guard: Preparing Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Families for Life with Hydrocephalus. Am J Perinatol. 2021 Jan 17. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1722344. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33454943.

Barks MC, Schindler EA, Ubel PA, Jiao MG, Pollak KI, Huffstetler HE, Lemmon ME. Assessment of parent understanding in conferences for critically ill neonates. Patient Educ Couns. 2021 Jun 11:S0738-3991(21)00412-2. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2021.06.013. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34130892.

Lemmon ME, Wusthoff CJ, Boss RD, Rasmussen LA; Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committee. Ethical considerations in the care of encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Jun 12:101258. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2021.101258. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34176763.

Shellhaas RA, Wusthoff CJ, Numis AL, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Soul JS, Chang T, Lemmon ME, Thomas C, McNamara NA, Guillet R, Franck LS, Sturza J, McCulloch CE, Glass HC. Early-life epilepsy after acute symptomatic neonatal seizures: A prospective multicenter study. Epilepsia. 2021 Jul 2. doi:10.1111/epi.16978. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34212365.

Glass HC, Soul JS, Chang T, Wusthoff CJ, Chu CJ, Massey SL, Abend NS, Lemmon M, Thomas C, Numis AL, Guillet R, Sturza J, McNamara NA, Rogers EE, Franck LS, McCulloch CE, Shellhaas RA. Safety of Early Discontinuation of Antiseizure Medication After Acute Symptomatic Neonatal Seizures. JAMA Neurol. 2021 Jul 1;78(7):817-825. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1437. Erratum in: JAMA Neurol. 2021 Jul 1;78(7):882. PMID: 34028496; PMCID: PMC8145161.


Gonski S, Hupp SR, Cotten CM, Clark RH, Laughon M, Watt K, , Smith PB, Greenberg RG. J Perinatol. 2019 Nov;39(11):1562-1568.

Natarajan G, Shankaran S, Nolen TL, Sridhar A, Kennedy KA, Hintz SR, Phelps DL, DeMauro SB, Carlo WA, Gantz MG, Das A, Greenberg RG, Younge NE, Bliss JM, Seabrook R, Sánchez PJ, Wyckoff MH, Bell EF, Vohr BR, Higgins RD.Pediatrics. 2019 Aug;144(2):e20183537. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-3537. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Mangalesh S, McGeehan B, Tai V, Chen X, Tran-Viet D, Vajzovic L, Viehland C, Izatt JA, Cotten CM, Freedman SF, Maguire MG, Toth CA; Study of Eye Imaging in Preterm Infants Group. Macular OCT Characteristics at 36 Weeks' Postmenstrual Age in Infants Examined for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Ophthalmol Retina. 2021 Jun;5(6):580-592. doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2020.09.004. Epub 2020 Sep 11. PMID:32927150; PMCID: PMC7947027.

Mangalesh S, Sarin N, McGeehan B, Prakalapakorn SG, Tran-Viet D, Cotten CM, Freedman SF, Maguire MG, Toth CA; BabySTEPS Group. Preterm Infant Stress During Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography vs Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscopy Examination for Retinopathy of Prematurity. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2021 May 1;139(5):567-574. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2021.0377. PMID: 33792625; PMCID: PMC8017483.


Taylor G, Jackson W, Hornik CP, Koss A, Mantena S, Homsley K, Gattis B, Kudumu-Clavell M, Clark R, Smith PB, Laughon MM. Surfactant Administration in Preterm Infants: Drug Development Opportunities J Pediatr. 2019 May;208:163-168. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.041. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Lane MD, Kishnani S, Udemadu O, Danquah SE, Treadway RM 3rd, Langman A, Balevic S, Jackson WM, Laughon M, Hornik CP, Greenberg RG, Clark RH, Zimmerman KO. Comparative efficacy and safety of late surfactant preparations: a retrospective study. J Perinatol. 2021 Jul 20:1–6. doi: 10.1038/s41372-021-01142-2. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34285358; PMCID: PMC8290378.

Jackson W, Taylor G, Bamat NA, Zimmerman K, Clark R, Benjamin DK, Laughon MM, Greenberg RG, Hornik CP. Outcomes Associated With Surfactant in More Mature and Larger Premature Infants With Respiratory Distress Syndrome   J Perinatol. 2020 Feb 20. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0625-1. Online ahead of print.

Gupta D, Greenberg RG, Sharma A, Natarajan G, Cotten M, Thomas R, Chawla S. A Predictive Model for Extubation Readiness in Extremely Preterm Infants. J Perinatol. 2019 Dec;39(12):1663-1669.

Gupta D, Greenberg RG, Natarajan G, Jani S, Sharma A, Cotten M, Thomas R, Chawla S. Respiratory setback associated with extubation failure in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2021 Jul;56(7):2081-2086. doi: 10.1002/ppul.25387. Epub 2021 Apr 5. PMID: 33819392.

Bartle RM, Miller AG, Diez AJ, Smith PB, Gentile MA, Puia-Dumitrescu M  Evaluating Endotracheal Tube Depth in Infants Weighing Less Than 1 Kilogram Respir Care. 2019 Mar;64(3):243-247. doi: 10.4187/respcare.06202. Epub 2018

Voynow JA, Fisher K, Sunday ME, Cotten CM, Hamvas A, Hendricks-Muñoz KD, Poindexter BB, Pryhuber GS, Ren CL, Ryan RM, Sharp JK, Young SP, Zhang H, Greenberg RG, Herring AH, Davis SD. Urine gastrin-releasing peptide in the first week correlates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and post-prematurity respiratory disease.  Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 Apr;55(4):899-908.

Rysavy MA, Li L, Tyson JE, Jensen EA, Das A, Ambalavanan N, Laughon MM, Greenberg RG, Patel RM, Pedroza C, Bell EF; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Should Vitamin A Injections to Prevent Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia or Death Be Reserved for High-Risk Infants? Reanalysis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Randomized Trial. J Pediatr. 2021 May 15:S0022-3476(21)00445-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.05.022. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34004189.


Puia-Dumitrescu M, Sullivan LN, Tanaka D, Fisher K, Pittman R, Kumar KR, Malcolm WF, Gustafson KE, Lodge AJ, Goldberg RN, Hornik CP: Survival, Morbidities, and Developmental Outcomes Among Low Birth Weight Infants with Congenital Heart Defects, Am J Perinatol. 2020 Jun 2. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1712964. Online ahead of print.PMID: 32485756


Cotten CM. Clin Perinatol. 2019 Mar;46(1):129-143. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2018.10.007.


Greenberg RG, Gayam S, Savage D, Tong A, Gorham D, Sholomon A, Clark RH, Benjamin DK, Laughon M, Smith PB; Furosemide Exposure and Prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Premature Infants, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee.J Pediatr. 2019 May;208:134-140.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.043. Epub 2018 Dec 20.PMID: 30579586.

Rivera-Chaparro ND, Ericson J, Wu H, Smith PB, Clark RH, Benjamin DK Jr, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Greenberg RG. Safety, Effectiveness and Exposure-response of Micafungin in Infants: Application of an Established Pharmacokinetics Model to Electronic Health Records, Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Feb;38(2):e26-e28. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002045.

Greenberg RG, Chowdhury D, et al:Prolonged duration of early antibiotic therapy in extremely premature infants, Pediatr Res. 2019 Jan 22. doi: 10.1038/s41390-019-0300-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Gerhart JG, Watt KM, Edginton A, Wade KC, Salerno SN, Benjamin DK Jr, Smith PB, Hornik CP, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Duara S, Ross A, Shattuck K, Stewart DL, Neu N, Gonzalez D; Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Fluconazole Using Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples From Preterm and Term Infants, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act - Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol. 2019 May 14. doi: 10.1002/psp4.12414. [Epub ahead of print]

Watt KM, Hornik CP, Balevic SJ, Mundakel G, Cotten CM, Harper B, Benjamin DK Jr, Anand R, Laughon M, Smith PB, Cohen-Wolkowiez M;Pharmacokinetics of ticarcillin-clavulanate in premature infants, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act - Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee.Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 May;85(5):1021-1027. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13882.

Balevic SJ, Smith PB, Testoni D, Wu H, Brouwer KLR, Zimmerman KO, Rivera-Chaparro ND, Benjamin DK Jr, Cohen-Wolkowiez M. . J Perinatol. 2019 Apr 3. doi: 10.1038/s41372-019-0368-z.

Smith PB, Cotten CM, Hudak ML, Sullivan JE, Poindexter BB, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Boakye-Agyeman F, Lewandowski A, Anand R, Benjamin DK Jr, Laughon MM; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee.. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Mar 25. pii: AAC.00284-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00284-19.

Thompson EJ, Perez K, Hornik CP, Smith PB, Clark RH, Laughon M; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee Sildenafil Exposure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Am J Perinatol. 2019 Feb;36(3):262-267. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1667378.

Autmizguine J, Smith PB, Prather K, Bendel C, Natarajan G, Bidegain M, Kaufman DA, Burchfield DJ, Ross AS, Pandit P, Schell WA, Gao J, Benjamin DK Jr; Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Team. .J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Dec 1;73(12):3482-3487. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky353.

Stoll BJ, Puopolo KM, Hansen NI, Sánchez PJ, Bell EF, Carlo WA, Cotten CM, D'Angio CT, Kazzi SNJ, Poindexter BB, Van Meurs KP, Hale EC, Collins MV, Das A, Baker CJ, Wyckoff MH, Yoder BA, Watterberg KL, Walsh MC, Devaskar U, Laptook AR, Sokol GM, Schrag SJ, Higgins RD; and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network May 4;e200593. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0593.

Weimer KED, Clark RH, Greenberg RG. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Dec 2;174(2):133-40. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.4532.

Aleem S, Greenberg RG. Neoreviews. 2019 Mar;20(3):e124-e134.

Abuali M, Zivot A, Guerguis S, Valladares E, Aleem S, Gonzalez-Salazar F, Rouchou B, Mottola N, Braitman L, Paoletti A. Am J Infect Control. 2019 Sep;47(9):1151-1153.

Ericson JE, , Greenberg RG, Clark RH, Tremoulet AH, Le J, , Smith PB, ; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Mar 30. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002663. Online ahead of print.

Gonzalez D, Laughon MM, Smith PB, Ge S, Ambalavanan N, Atz A, Sokol GM, , Stewart D, Mundakel G, Poindexter BB, Gaedigk R, Mills M, , Martz K, Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act - Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. Population .Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019 Dec;85(12):2824-2837.

Greenberg RG, Gayam S, Savage D, Tong A, Gorham D, Sholomon A, Clark RH, Benjamin DK, Laughon M, Smith PB; s. Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. J Pediatr. 2019 May;208:134-140.e2.

Greenberg RG, Wu H, Maharaj A, , Tomashek KM, Osborn BL, Clark RH, Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Mar;39(3):204-210. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002524

Weimer KE, Roark H, Fisher K, Cotten CM, Bidegain M, Permar SR: Breast milk and saliva lactoferrin levels and postnatal cytomegalovirus infection, American Journal of Perinatology, Accept for Publication 1.6.2020.

Dail, R. B., Everhart, K., Hardin, J., Chang, W., Kuehn, D., Iskersky, V. Fisher, K. & Murphy, H. J. (2020). Predicting Infection in Very Preterm Infants: A Study Protocol. Nurs Res. 2021 Mar-Apr 01;70(2):142-149. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000483.

Smith MJ, Boutzoukas A, Autmizguine J, Hudak ML, Zinkhan E, Bloom BT, Heresi G, Lavery AP, Courtney SE, Sokol GM, Cotten CM, Bliss JM, Mendley S, Bendel C, Dammann CEL, Weitkamp JH, Saxonhouse MA, Mundakel GT, Debski J, Sharma G, Erinjeri J, Gao J, Benjamin DK Jr, Hornik CP, Smith PB, Cohen-Wolkowiez M; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. Antibiotic Safety and Effectiveness in Premature Infants With Complicated Intraabdominal Infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jun 1;40(6):550-555. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003034. PMID: 33902072.

Polcwiartek LB, Smith PB, Benjamin DK, Zimmerman K, Love A, Tiu L, Murray S, Kang P, Ebbesen F, Hagstrøm S, Clark RH, Greenberg RG. Early-onset sepsis in term infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (2011-2016). J Perinatol. 2021 Jan;41(1):157-163. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00860-3. Epub 2020 Oct 17. PMID: 33070153; PMCID: PMC7568457.

Le J, Greenberg RG, Benjamin DK, Yoo Y, Zimmerman KO, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Wade KC; Administrative Core Committee of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act–Pediatric Trials Network. Prolonged Post-Discontinuation Antibiotic Exposure in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates at Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 May 28;10(5):615-621. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piaa172. PMID: 33491088; PMCID: PMC8163059.

Ganguly S, Edginton AN, Gerhart JG, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Greenberg RG, Gonzalez D; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act-Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Meropenem in Preterm and Term Infants. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2021 Jun 22. doi: 10.1007/s40262-021-01046-6. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34155614.

Nutrition and Growth

Puia-Dumitrescu M, Benjamin DK Sr, Smith PB, Greenberg RGmpact of Gastrostomy Tube Placement on Short-Term Weight Gain in Hospitalized Premature Infants, JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2019 Mar 25. doi: 10.1002/jpen.1539. [Epub ahead of print]

Warren MG, Do B, Das A, Smith PB, Adams-Chapman I, Jadcherla S, Jensen EA, Goldstein RF, Goldberg RN, Cotten CM, Bell EF, Malcolm WF; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. J Pediatr. 2019 Nov;214:41-46.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.06.066.

Edwards L, Cotten CM, Smith PB, Goldberg R, Saha S, Das A, Laptook AR, Stoll BJ, Bell EF, Carlo WA, D'Angio CT, DeMauro SB, Sanchez PJ, Shankaran S, Van Meurs KP, Vohr BR, Walsh MC, Malcolm WF; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. J Perinatol. 2019 Sep;39(9):1219-1228. doi: 10.1038/s41372-019-0422-x. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Younge NE, Cotten CM, Goldberg RN, , Seed PC, Ashley PL. .Sci Rep. 2019 Jun 3;9(1):8167.

Weimer KED, , Greenberg RG. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0244. Online ahead of print.

Abdel-Rahman SM, Paul IM, Delmore P, Chen JY, Mills M, Greenberg RG; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act – Pediatric Trials Network. BMC Pediatr 2020 Jan 22;20(1):30.doi: 10.1186/s12887-020-1933-5.

Gray KD, Hannon EA, Erickson E, Stewart AB, Wood CT, Fisher K, Shaikh SK, Tanaka D: Influence of Early Lactation Assistance on Inpatient Exclusive Breastfeeding Rates, J Hum Lact 2020 Sep 14;890334420957967.doi: 10.1177/0890334420957967.

Management of Complex Issues

Shankaran S, Bell EF, Laptook AR, Saha S, Newman NS, Kazzi SNJ, Barks J, Stoll BJ, Bara R, Gabrio J, Childs K, Das A, Higgins RD, Carlo WA, Sánchez PJ, Carlton DP, Pavageau L, Malcolm WF, D'Angio CT, Ohls RK, Poindexter BB, Sokol GM, Van Meurs KP, Colaizy TT, Khmour A, Puopolo KM, Garg M, Walsh MC; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health, and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. . J Pediatr. 2019 Jan;204:96-102.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.08.079. Epub 2018.

Benninger KL, Inder TE, Goodman AM, Cotten CM, Nordli DR, Shah TA, Slaughter JC, Maitre NL. Perspectives from the Society for Pediatric Research. .Pediatr Res. 2020 Mar 27. doi: 10.1038/s41390-020-0859-9.

Berube MW, , Bidegain M, Tolia VN, Cotten CM, Greenberg RG.Perinatol. 2020 Jan;40(1):79-88.

Rysavy MA, Horbar JD, Bell EF, Li L, Greenberg LT, Tyson JE, Patel RM, Carlo WA, Younge NE, Green CE, Edwards EM, Hintz SR, Walsh MC, Buzas JS, Das A, Higgins RD; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network and Vermont Oxford Network. . JAMA Pediatr. 2020 Mar 2;174(5):e196294. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.6294. Online ahead of print.

Puia-Dumitrescu M, Younge N, , Lawson K, Hume C, Hill K, Mengistu J, Wilson A, , Ahmad K, Greenberg RG. J Perinatol. 2020 May;40(5):781-789. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0614-4. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Puia-Dumitrescu M, Tanaka DT, Spears TG, Daniel CJ, Kumar KR, Athavale K, Juul SE, Smith PB. . J Perinatol. 2019 Dec;39(12):1670-1675.

Ericson JE, McGuire J, Michaels MG, Schwarz A, Frenck R, Deville JG, Agarwal S, Bressler AM, Gao J, Spears T, , Smith PB, Bradley JS; Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act—Pediatric Trials Network Steering Committee and the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative. . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 Mar 2. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002642. Online ahead of print.

Ji D, Smith PB, Clark RH, , Laughon M, Ku L, Greenberg RG. J Perinatol 2020 Feb;40(2):288-293.

Zimmerman KO, Wu H, Laughon M, Greenberg RG, Walczak R, Schulman SR, Smith PB, Hornik CP, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Watt KM. Dexmedetomidine Pharmacokinetics and a New Dosing Paradigm in Infants Supported With Cardiopulmonary Bypass. Anesth Analg. 2019 Dec;129(6):1519-1528.

Ku LC, Simmons C, Smith PB, Greenberg RG, Fisher K, Hornik CD, Cotten CM, Goldberg RN, Bidegain M. . J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2019;12(2):143-148.

Wolf MF, Childers J, Gray KD, Chivily C, Glenn M, Jones L, Kpa M, McMannen T, Reyes I, , Clark RH, Greenberg RG.J Perinatol. 2020 Mar 9. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0642-0. Online ahead of print.

Greene NH, Greenberg RG, O'Brien SM, Kemper AR, Miranda ML, Clark RH, Smith PB. Variation in Gastrostomy Tube Placement in Premature Infants in the United States.  Am J Perinatol. 2019 Oct;36(12):1243-1249

Miller LE, Stoller JZ, Fraga MV. . Curr Opin Pediatr. 2020 Apr;32(2):216-227.

McCarty DB, Peat JR, O'Donnell S, Graham E, Malcolm WF.  On "'Choose Physical Therapy' for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Clinical Management for Infants Affected by the Opioid Crisis Phys Ther. 2019 Jun 1;99(6):771-78.

Puia-Dumitrescu M, Benjamin DK Sr, Smith PB, Greenberg RG, Abuzaid N, Andrews W, Chellani K, Gupta A, Price D, Williams C, Malcolm WF, Clark RH, . . J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2020 Feb;44(2):355-360.

Ferguson DM, Lally P, Tsao K, Harting, Fisher KA, Fouad D, Hawkins MJ, Kays DW, Levin DE, Lindeman JA, Luco M, Maroszyńska IA, McGahren ED, McLean SE, Burgos CM, Russell RT, Schoel LJ, Villalona GA, Lally KP. Hepatopulmonary Fusion: A Rare Variant of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2019 Nov 7. pii: S0022-3468(19)30689-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2019.09.037.

Miller LE, DeRienzo C, Smith PB, Bose C, Clark RH, Cotten CM, Benjamin DK, Hornik CD, Greenberg RG. Association between neonatal intensive care unit medication safety practices, adverse events, and death. J Perinatol. 2021 Jul;41(7):1739-1744. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00857-y. Epub 2020 Oct 8. PMID: 33033390.

Curtis S, Younge N, Peterson J, Cotten CM, Aleem S, Greenberg RG. Which infants should receive indomethacin prophylaxis: moving closer to individualized medicine in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2021 Jul 9:S0022-3476(21)00671-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.07.006. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34252422.

Chakkarapani AA, Aly H, Benders M, Cotten CM, El-Dib M, Gressens P, Hagberg H, Sabir H, Wintermark P, Robertson NJ; Newborn Brain Society Guidelines and Publications Committee. Therapies for neonatal encephalopathy: Targeting the latent, secondary and tertiary phases of evolving brain injury. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Jun 12:101256. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2021.101256. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34154945.

Salerno SN, Liao Y, Jackson W, Greenberg RG, McKinzie CJ, McCallister A, Benjamin DK, Laughon MM, Sanderson K, Clark RH, Gonzalez D. Association between Nephrotoxic Drug Combinations and Acute Kidney Injury in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. J Pediatr. 2021 Jan;228:213-219. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.08.035. Epub 2020 Aug 17. PMID: 32818481; PMCID: PMC7752849.

Dorismond C, Hunter SE, McNaull PP, Zimmerman KO, Benjamin DK, Greenberg RG, Corey KM, Laughon MM, Jackson WM. Wide range of perioperative drugs and doses used in inguinal hernia repairs for premature infants. J Perinatol. 2021 Mar;41(3):577-581. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00864-z. Epub 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33097820; PMCID: PMC7954820.

Singh A, Francis HW, Smith PB, Clark RH, Greenberg RG. . J Pediatr. 2021 Apr;231:68-73. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.12.059. Epub 2021 Jan 19. PMID: 33359471.

Worley G, Greenberg RG, Rocque BG, Liu T, Dicianno BE, Castillo JP, Ward EA, Williams TR, Blount JP, Wiener JS. Neurosurgical procedures for children with myelomeningocele after fetal or postnatal surgery: a comparative effectiveness study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2021 Jan 2. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14792. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33386749.

Robinson V, Achey MA, Nag UP, Reed CR, Pahl KS, Greenberg RG, Clark RH, Tracy ET. Thrombosis in infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: Analysis of a large national database. J Thromb Haemost. 2021 Feb;19(2):400-407. doi: 10.1111/jth.15144. Epub 2021 Jan 5. PMID: 33075167.

Aleem S, Robbins C, Murphy B, Elliott S, Akinyemi C, Paredes N, Tolia VN, Zimmerman KO, Goldberg RN, Benjamin DK, Greenberg RG. The use of supplemental hydrocortisone in the management of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. J Perinatol. 2021 Apr;41(4):794-800. doi: 10.1038/s41372-021-00943-9. Epub 2021 Feb 15. PMID: 33589734; PMCID: PMC8052278.

Miller LE, Laughon MM, Clark RH, Zimmerman KO, Hornik CP, Aleem S, Brian Smith P, Greenberg RG. Vasoactive medications in extremely low gestational age neonates during the first postnatal week. J Perinatol. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1038/s41372-021-01031-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33758384.

Tolia VN Bahr MB, Bennett MM, Martin G, Greenberg RG, Laughon M, Clark RH. The Association of Hydrocortisone Dosage on Mortality in Infants Born Extremely Premature 2019 Apr; 207:143-147.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.11.023. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Brion LP, Phelps DL, Ward RM, Nolen TL, Hallman NMK, Das A, Zaccaro DJ, Ball MB, Watterberg KL, Frantz ID 3rd, Cotten CM, Poindexter BB, Oh W, Lugo RA, Van Meurs KP, O'Shea TM, Zaterka-Baxter KM, Higgins RD; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Blood myo-inositol concentrations in preterm and term infants. J Perinatol. 2021 Feb;41(2):247-254. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00799-5. Epub 2020 Sep 15. PMID: 32934363; PMCID: PMC7889639.

Long-term Outcomes

Goldstein RF, Malcolm WF. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2019 Apr;66(2):489-508.

Simpson SL, Grayson S, Peterson JH, Moore JJ, Mhanna MJ, Perez MK, Rezaee F, Piedimonte G. 2019 Mar;54(3):303-312.

Adams-Chapman I, Watterberg KL, Nolen TL, Hirsch S, Cole CA, Cotten CM, Oh W, Poindexter BB, Zaterka-Baxter KM, Das A, Lacy CB, Scorsone AM, Duncan AF, DeMauro SB, Goldstein RF, Colaizy TT, Wilson-Costello DE, Purdy IB, Hintz SR, Heyne RJ, Myers GJ, Fuller J, Merhar S, Harmon HM, Peralta-Carcelen M, Kilbride HW, Maitre NL, Vohr BR, Natarajan G, Mintz-Hittner H, Quinn GE, Wallace DK, Olson RJ, Orge FH, Tsui I, Gaynon M, Hutchinson AK, He YG, Winter TW, Yang MB, Haider KM, Cogen MS, Hug D, Bremer DL, Donahue JP, Lucas WR, Phelps DL, Higgins RD; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants enrolled in myo-inositol randomized controlled trial. J Perinatol. 2021 Mar 23. doi: 10.1038/s41372-021-01018-5. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33758387.

Vohr BR, McGowan EC, Bann C, Das A, Higgins R, Hintz S; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Association of High Screen-Time Use With School-age Cognitive, Executive Function, and Behavior Outcomes in Extremely Preterm Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2021 Jul 12:e212041. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.2041. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34251406; PMCID: PMC8276120.

Stark A, Cantrell S, Greenberg RG, Permar SR, Weimer KED. Long-term Outcomes after Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Infection in Low Birthweight Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 Jun 1;40(6):571-581. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003072. PMID: 33902071.

Mukhopadhyay S, Puopolo KM, Hansen NI, Lorch SA, DeMauro SB, Greenberg RG, Cotten CM, Sanchez PJ, Bell EF, Eichenwald EC, Stoll BJ; NICHD Neonatal Research Network. Neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal late-onset sepsis and blood culture-negative conditions. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 Jan 21:fetalneonatal-2020-320664. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-320664. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33478957; PMCID: PMC8292446.


Dagle JM, Ryckman KK, Spracklen CN, Momany AM, Cotten CM, Levy J, Page GP, Bell EF, Carlo WA, Shankaran S, Goldberg RN, Ehrenkranz RA, Tyson JE, Stoll BJ, Murray JC; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. . Perinatol. 2019 Mar;39(3):401-408. doi: 10.1038/s41372-018-0285-6.

Worley G, Erickson SW, Gustafson KE, Nikolova YS, Ashley-Koch AE, Belsky DW, Goldstein RF, Page GP, Cotten CM; Genetic variation in dopamine neurotransmission and motor development of infants born extremely-low-birthweight. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020 Jun;62(6):750-757.

Thornburg CD, Erickson SW, Page GP, Clark EAS, DeAngelis MM, Hartnett ME, Goldstein RF, Dagle JM, Murray JC, Poindexter BB, Das A, Cotten CM; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Genetic predictors of severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low-birthweight infants. J Perinatol. 2021 Feb;41(2):286-294. doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-00821-w. Epub 2020 Sep 25. Erratum in: J Perinatol. 2020 Oct 12;: PMID: 32978526; PMCID: PMC7889697.

Palliative Care

Dworetz AR, Natarajan G, Langer J, Kinlaw K, James JR, Bidegain M, Das A, Poindexter B, Bell EF, Cotten CM, Kirpalani H, Shankaran S, Stoll BJ; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health; Human Development Neonatal Research Network. Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in extremely low gestational age neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2021 May;106(3):238-243. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-318855. Epub 2020 Oct 20. PMID: 33082153; PMCID: PMC8055718.

Bernstein SM. Acad Pediatr. 2020 Apr;20(3):293-294.

Lemmon ME. Deciding when a life is not worth living: An imperative to measure what matters. J Med Ethics. 2020 Jan;46(1):18-19. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2019-105807. Epub 2019 Nov 20. PMID: 31748207.

Technology in the NICU

Dias PL. Greenberg RG, Goldberg RN, Fisher K, Tanaka DT: Augmented Reality–Assisted Video Laryngoscopy and Simulated Neonatal Intubations: A Pilot Study, Pediatrics March 2021, 147 (3) e2020005009.

Nichols J, Brandler E,  Fantz C R,  Fisher K, Goodman M,  Headden G, Hoppensteadt D,  Ryan Matika R, Peacock W,  Rodrigo J, Schu¨tzenmeister A,  Swanson J, Canada-Vilalta C,  Miles G,  Tran N, A Multicenter Evaluation of a Point-of-Care Blood Glucose Meter System in Critically Ill Patients, The Journal of Applied Laboratory Medicine on 10 April 2021.

Healthcare System Management/Research

Greenberg RG, Poole L, Ford DE, Hanley D, Selker HP, Lane K, Dean JM, Burr J, Harris P, Wilkins CH, Bernard G, Edwards T, Benjamin DK Jr. Response of the trial innovation network to the COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Transl Sci. 2021 Apr 20;5(1):e100. doi: 10.1017/cts.2021.782. PMID: 34192055; PMCID: PMC8185427.

Wosik J, Fudim M, Cameron B, Gellad ZF, Cho A, Phinney D, Curtis S, Roman M, Poon EG, Ferranti J, Katz JN, Tcheng J J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020 Apr 20:ocaa067. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa067.

Bench Science

Calderon D, Nguyen MLT, Mezger A, Kathiria A, Müller F, Nguyen V, Lescano N, Wu B, Trombetta J, Ribado JV, Knowles DA, Gao Z, Blaeschke F, Parent AV, Burt TD, Anderson MS, Criswell LA, Greenleaf WJ, Marson A, Pritchard JK. Landscape of Stimulation-Responsive Chromatin Across Diverse Human Immune Cells. Nat Genet 2019 Oct;51(10):1494-1505.

Ng MSF, Roth TL, Mendoza VF, Marson A, Burt TD. Helios enhances the preferential differentiation of human fetal CD4+ naïve T cells into regulatory T cells.  Sci Immunol. 2019 Nov 22;4(41):eaav5947. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aav5947.

Younge N, McCann JR, Ballard J, Plunkett C, Akhtar S, Araújo-Pérez F, Murtha A, Brandon D, Seed PC. Fetal Exposure to the Maternal Microbiota in Humans and Mice.  JCI Insight. 2019 Oct 3;4(19):e127806. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.127806.

Medical Education

Gray MM, Dadiz R, Izatt S, Gillam-Krakauer M, Carbajal MM, Falck AJ, Bonachea EM, Johnston LC, Karpen H, Vasquez MM, Chess PR, French H. Value, Strengths, and Challenges of e-Learning Modules Paired with the Flipped Classroom for Graduate Medical Education: A Survey from the National Neonatology Curriculum.  Am J Perinatol. 2020 Apr 10. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1709145. [Online ahead of print]

Izatt S, Gray M, Dadiz R, French H. Development and Implementation of a National Neonatology Flipped Classroom Curriculum J Grad Med Educ. 2019 Jun;11(3):335-336.

Global Health

Rent S, Valentine G, Ehret D, Kukora S. Global Health Training During Neonatal Fellowship: Fellow and Program Director Perspectives. J Perinatol. 2020 Aug;40(8):1253-1261.doi: 10.1038/s41372-020-0639-8. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Gondwe KW, Brandon D, Yang Q, Malcolm WF, Small MJ, Holditch-Davis D. An Observational Study on Early Dyadic Interactive Behaviors of Mothers With Early-Preterm, Late-Preterm, and Full-Term Infants in Malawi.   Adv Neonatal Care. 2020 Feb;20(1):90-99.

Academic Setting

Hannon E, Fisher, K, Seashore C, Tuccero D: Toto, I’ve a Feeling We’re Not in Kansas Anymore: Navigating the Mid-career Transition to Academic Medicine, Medical Science Educator, October 5, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s40670-020-01111-y.

How you can participate

If you currently have a baby in the Duke Intensive Care Nursery, and you think you may want to participate in any of our research studies, please ask your baby’s nurse or doctor to contact us. The NPRU team will then contact you to explain the criteria for study eligibility and describe the potential benefits and risks for entering the study. 

Riley (newborn)

Riley Ashley
NPRU Graduate

Learn more

To learn more about the Duke Intensive Care Nursery, visit the Duke Division of Neonatology website. For more information about the Neonatal Perinatal Research Unit or to learn more about our clinical trials, email us at, or call 919-681-4913.