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Michael Scott Freemark, MD

Robert C. Atkins, M.D. and Veronica Atkins Professor of Pediatrics, in the School of Medicine
Professor of Pediatrics
Chief, Divison of Pediatric Endocrinology
Affiliate, Duke Global Health Institute
Member of Sarah W. Stedman Nutrition and Metabolism Center
Campus mail: Box 102820 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
Phone: (919) 684-8350
Email address: freem001@mc.duke.edu

The primary objective of my basic research has been to elucidate the roles of placental and fetal hormones in the regulation of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. My work has focused on the lactogenic hormones produced by the pituitary gland and placenta. In recent studies we have used targeted knockout mice to explore the molecular mechanisms by which prolactin and placental lactogen regulate pancreatic beta cell mass and insulin production during pregnancy and postnatal life.
I also have a clinical research interest in the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity and hyperlipidemia and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. In previous studies we showed that the drug metformin reduces fat stores and blood glucose and insulin levels in obese adolescents and may reduce the risk of progression to diabetes in selected patients. We have also examined the unique metabolic characteristics of Prader Willi syndrome, a genetic obesity disorder. Finally, we have recently completed a detailed study of metabolism in malnourished children in Uganda and characterized the effects of concurrent HIV infection on nutritional recovery.

Education and Training

  • M.D., Duke University, 1976
  • B.A., Brandeis University, 1972

Selected Grants and Awards

Publications

Freemark, Michael, and Wieland Kiess. “Anti-obesity medication use in adolescents: risks and benefits..” Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2 Suppl 1 (November 2004): 168–70.

Scholars@Duke

Freemark, Michael. “Editorial: Growth hormone treatment of "idiopathic short stature": not so fast..” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, no. 7 (July 2004): 3138–39. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2004-0671.

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Artz, Evelyn, and Michael Freemark. “The pathogenesis of insulin resistance in children: metabolic complications and the roles of diet, exercise and pharmacotherapy in the prevention of type 2 diabetes..” Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 1, no. 3 (March 2004): 296–309.

Scholars@Duke

Freemark, Michael, and Lynne L. Levitsky. “Screening for celiac disease in children with type 1 diabetes: two views of the controversy..” Diabetes Care 26, no. 6 (June 2003): 1932–39. https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.26.6.1932.

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Freemark, Michael. “Pharmacologic approaches to the prevention of type 2 diabetes in high risk pediatric patients..” J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88, no. 1 (January 2003): 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-021033.

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Litton, Jean, Alan Rice, Nancy Friedman, Jon Oden, Mary M. Lee, and Michael Freemark. “Insulin pump therapy in toddlers and preschool children with type 1 diabetes mellitus..” J Pediatr 141, no. 4 (October 2002): 490–95. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2002.127500.

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Oden, Jon, Don Fleenor, Phyllis Driscoll, and Michael Freemark. “Leptin in the newborn mouse. Plasma concentrations, characterization of the circulating hormone, and tissue source..” Biol Neonate 82, no. 2 (August 2002): 109–16. https://doi.org/10.1159/000063086.

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Oden, Jon, and Michael Freemark. “Thyroxine supplementation in preterm infants: critical analysis..” Curr Opin Pediatr 14, no. 4 (August 2002): 447–52.

Scholars@Duke

Freemark, Michael, Isabelle Avril, Don Fleenor, Phyllis Driscoll, Ann Petro, Emmanuel Opara, Will Kendall, et al. “Targeted deletion of the PRL receptor: effects on islet development, insulin production, and glucose tolerance..” Endocrinology 143, no. 4 (April 2002): 1378–85. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo.143.4.8722.

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Rapaport, R., S. R. Rose, and M. Freemark. “Hypothyroxinemia in the preterm infant: the benefits and risks of thyroxine treatment..” J Pediatr 139, no. 2 (August 2001): 182–88. https://doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2001.116934.

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