Emmanuel B. Walter, MD, MPH



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Professor of Pediatrics
Department / Division:
Pediatrics / Pediatrics-Primary Care
DUMC 3675
Durham, NC 27710
Appointment Telephone:
Office Telephone:
  • MD, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 1983
  • Pediatrics, University of Maryland Medical Center, 1983-1986
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, 1987-1990
Other Training:
  • MPH, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, 1992
Clinical Interests:
General pediatrics, childhood and adult immunizations
Research Interests:
Dr. Emmanuel (Chip) Walter is Director of the Duke Clinical Vaccine Unit and he is Associate Director of the Primary Care Research Consortium at the Duke Clinical Research Institute.

Vaccine research:

1) Clinical trials (vaccines for biodefense, pandemic and seasonal influenza virus vaccines, investigational respiratory virus vaccines, rotavirus vaccine, human papilloma virus vaccine, conjugate pneumococcal vaccine, meningococcal vaccines, combination vaccines)

2) Vaccine utilization (influenza vaccination of special populations, adolescent immunization)

Vaccine safety evaluation:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Project
Representative Publications:
  • Chen, WH; Winokur, PL; Edwards, KM; Jackson, LA; Wald, A; Walter, EB; Noah, DL; Wolff, M; Kotloff, KL; Pandemic H1N1 Vaccine Adult Study Group. Phase 2 assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of two inactivated pandemic monovalent H1N1 vaccines in adults as a component of the U.S. pandemic preparedness plan in 2009. Vaccine. 2012;30:4240-4248.  Abstract
  • Frenck, RW; Belshe, R; Brady, RC; Winokur, PL; Campbell, JD; Treanor, J; Hay, CM; Dekker, CL; Walter, EB; Cate, TR; Edwards, KM; Hill, H; Wolff, M; Leduc, T; Tornieporth, N. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of a split-virion, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) administered by intradermal and intramuscular route in healthy adults. Vaccine. 2011;29:5666-5674.  Abstract
  • Hauber, AB; Itzler, R; Johnson, FR; Mohamed, AF; González, JM; Cook, JR; Walter, EB. Healthy-days time equivalents for outcomes of acute rotavirus infections. Vaccine. 2011;29:8086-8093.  Abstract
  • Moody, MA; Zhang, R; Walter, EB; Woods, CW; Ginsburg, GS; McClain, MT; Denny, TN; Chen, X; Munshaw, S; Marshall, DJ; Whitesides, JF; Drinker, MS; Amos, JD; Gurley, TC; Eudailey, JA; Foulger, A; DeRosa, KR; Parks, R; Meyerhoff, RR; Yu, JS; Kozink, DM; Barefoot, BE; Ramsburg, EA; Khurana, S; Golding, H; Vandergrift, NA; Alam, SM; Tomaras, GD; Kepler, TB; Kelsoe, G; Liao, HX; Haynes, BF. H3N2 influenza infection elicits more cross-reactive and less clonally expanded anti-hemagglutinin antibodies than influenza vaccination. PloS one. 2011;6:e25797.  Abstract
  • Tan, W; Viera, AJ; Rowe-West, B; Grimshaw, A; Quinn, B; Walter, EB. The HPV vaccine: are dosing recommendations being followed?. Vaccine. 2011;29:2548-2554.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Dole, N; Siega-Riz, AM; Entwisle, B. The National Children's Study in North Carolina: a study of the effect of the environment on children's health, growth, and development. North Carolina Medical Journal. 2011;72:160-164.  Abstract
  • Whittle, JR; Zhang, R; Khurana, S; King, LR; Manischewitz, J; Golding, H; Dormitzer, PR; Haynes, BF; Walter, EB; Moody, MA; Kepler, TB; Liao, HX; Harrison, SC. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA. 2011;108:14216-14221.  Abstract
  • Englund, JA; Walter, E; Black, S; Blatter, M; Nyberg, J; Ruben, FL; Decker, MD; GRC28 Study Team. Safety and immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in infants: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2010;29:105-110.  Abstract
  • Halperin, SA; Gupta, A; Jeanfreau, R; Klein, NP; Reisinger, K; Walter, E; Bedell, L; Gill, C; Dull, PM. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational and a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in children 2-10 years of age. Vaccine. 2010;28:7865-7872.  Abstract
  • Mast, TC; Walter, EB; Bulotsky, M; Khawaja, SS; DiStefano, DJ; Sandquist, MK; Straus, WL; Staat, MA. Burden of childhood rotavirus disease on health systems in the United States. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2010;29:e19-e25.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Allred, NJ; Swamy, GK; Hellkamp, AS; Dolor, RJ. Influenza vaccination of household contacts of newborns: a hospital-based strategy to increase vaccination rates. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 2010;31:1070-1073.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Rajagopal, S; Zhu, Y; Neuzil, KM; Fairchok, MP; Englund, JA. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) immunogenicity in children 6 through 23 months of age: do children of all ages respond equally?. Vaccine. 2010;28:4376-4383.  Abstract
  • Liao, HX; Levesque, MC; Nagel, A; Dixon, A; Zhang, R; Walter, E; Parks, R; Whitesides, J; Marshall, DJ; Hwang, KK; Yang, Y; Chen, X; Gao, F; Munshaw, S; Kepler, TB; Denny, T; Moody, MA; Haynes, BF. High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Virological Methods. 2009;158:171-179.  Abstract
  • Mast, TC; DeMuro-Mercon, C; Kelly, CM; Floyd, LE; Walter, EB. The impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the family. BMC Pediatrics. 2009;9:11.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Allred, N; Rowe-West, B; Chmielewski, K; Kretsinger, K; Dolor, RJ. Cocooning infants: Tdap immunization for new parents in the pediatric office. Academic Pediatrics. 2009;9:344-347.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Englund, JA; Blatter, M; Nyberg, J; Ruben, FL; Decker, MD; GRC27 Study Team. Trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine given to two-month-old children: an off-season pilot study. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2009;28:1099-1104.  Abstract
  • Keitel, WA; Campbell, JD; Treanor, JJ; Walter, EB; Patel, SM; He, F; Noah, DL; Hill, H. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine given with or without aluminum hydroxide to healthy adults: results of a phase I-II randomized clinical trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;198:1309-1316.  Abstract
  • Talbot, HK; Keitel, W; Cate, TR; Treanor, J; Campbell, J; Brady, RC; Graham, I; Dekker, CL; Ho, D; Winokur, P; Walter, E; Bennet, J; Formica, N; Hartel, G; Skeljo, M; Edwards, KM. Immunogenicity, safety and consistency of new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2008;26:4057-4061.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Snyder, MA; Clements, DA; Katz, SL. Large injection site reactions after a second dose of varicella vaccine. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2008;27:757-759.  Abstract
  • Englund, JA; Walter, EB; Gbadebo, A; Monto, AS; Zhu, Y; Neuzil, KM. Immunization with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in partially immunized toddlers. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e579-e585.  Abstract
  • Guerra, FA; Gress, J; Werzberger, A; Reisinger, K; Walter, E; Lakkis, H; Grosso, AD; Welebob, C; Kuter, BJ; Pediatric Study Group for VAQTA. Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of VAQTA given concomitantly versus nonconcomitantly with other pediatric vaccines in healthy 12-month-old children. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2006;25:912-919.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Neuzil, KM; Zhu, Y; Fairchok, MP; Gagliano, ME; Monto, AS; Englund, JA. Influenza vaccine immunogenicity in 6- to 23-month-old children: are identical antigens necessary for priming?. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e570-e578.  Abstract
  • Englund, JA; Walter, EB; Fairchok, MP; Monto, AS; Neuzil, KM. A comparison of 2 influenza vaccine schedules in 6- to 23-month-old children. Pediatrics. 2005;115:1039-1047.  Abstract
  • Clark, HF; Burke, CJ; Volkin, DB; Offit, P; Ward, RL; Bresee, JS; Dennehy, P; Gooch, WM; Malacaman, E; Matson, D; Walter, E; Watson, B; Krah, DL; Dallas, MJ; Schödel, F; Kaplan, KM; Heaton, P. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in healthy infants of G1 and G2 human reassortant rotavirus vaccine in a new stabilizer/buffer liquid formulation. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2003;22:914-920.  Abstract
  • Clements, DA; Zaref, JI; Bland, CL; Walter, EB; Coplan, PM. Partial uptake of varicella vaccine and the epidemiological effect on varicella disease in 11 day-care centers in North Carolina. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2001;155:455-461.  Abstract
  • Clements, DA; Moreira, SP; Coplan, PM; Bland, CL; Walter, EB. Postlicensure study of varicella vaccine effectiveness in a day-care setting. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1999;18:1047-1050.  Abstract
  • Walter, EB; Hornick, RB; Poland, GA; Tucker, R; Bland, CL; Clements, DA; Rhamstine, CC; Jacobson, RM; Brown, L; Gress, JO; Harris, KE; Wiens, BL; Nalin, DR. Concurrent administration of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine with immune globulin in healthy adults. Vaccine. 1999;17:1468-1473.  Abstract
  • Clements, DA; Armstrong, CB; Ursano, AM; Moggio, MM; Walter, EB; Wilfert, CM. Over five-year follow-up of Oka/Merck varicella vaccine recipients in 465 infants and adolescents. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 1995;14:874-879.  Abstract
  • Clements, DA; Langdon, L; Bland, C; Walter, E. Influenza A vaccine decreases the incidence of otitis media in 6- to 30-month-old children in day care. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1995;149:1113-1117.  Abstract